The program is open to both academics and professionals. The academic year in Russia consists of two semesters, generally beginning the first week of September and the first week of February. Affiliations are available at a wide range of Russian academic institutions, and recent successful affiliations have been at institutions in Irkutsk, Izhevsk, Kaliningrad, Kazan, Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk, Perm, Petrozavodsk, Pskov, Rostov-on-Don, Tomsk, Tula, Tyumen, Vladivostok, Vologda, Volgograd, Voronezh, Ulan Ude, Yekaterinburg and Yoshkar-Ola, among others. The Fulbright Program Office in Moscow will consider placement requests based on prior academic contacts, if available, between scholars and proposed host institutions. However, final placements will be determined by the Fulbright Office and affiliations for teaching and teaching/research awards will be arranged with institutions outside Moscow and St. Petersburg. Only a limited number of research awards will be awarded for Moscow and St. Petersburg. Scholars should expect to remain primarily in a single host city/institution, and they should not expect split affiliations or significant travel to secondary cities for research or lecturing purposes. Scholars traveling with children have successfully enrolled their children at a variety of English and Russian language schools, depending upon their needs. Information on current activities can be found at www.fulbright.ru. All scholars are required to enter Russia on a U.S. passport with a Russian visa.